如果你熟悉彼得·道,it is probably from the Democratic primary posting wars of 2016,which then morphed into the #Resistance movement that has dominated American political Twitter since Donald Trump was elected president.

和汤姆·沃森一起,道乌是杰出的“希拉里人”,这个绰号是给那些反对“伯尼兄弟”网络威胁的人的,在2016年之前的每一次机会上都会发推特来为希拉里辩护。他是如此坚定的克林顿主义者,以至于他建立了自由媒体监督网站。弗里特which aimed to largely to combat "fake news" about HRC and those in her orbit.

道乌花了无数时间在社会媒体上为希拉里·克林顿辩护,并向自由主义的敌人必威官网手机版发帖。尽管他最近犯了offering an olive branch伯尼·桑德斯,if his book is any indication,他并不后悔自己花在战壕里的时间。


在他的新书中,数字内战:面对极右势力的威胁,Peter Daou lays out the case that the new frontier in the battle between liberals and conservatives is 必威官网手机版social media and it is every liberal's patriotic duty to post.

道乌认为风险很高,形势很严峻。他写得毫无讽刺意味,“每天登陆都会进入战区,a gauntlet of verbal abuse,煤气照明,和骚扰。社交媒体的无情毒性是一个特征,必威官网手机版不是虫子,of digital warfare." He even goes as far as to say,“黎巴嫩内战……为美国内战做了准备”(道乌在饱受战争蹂躏的黎巴嫩长大)。

也许,道乌的观点是极端的,但即使他说话夸张,数字内战作为政治媒体批评的一部分,它确实起到了很好的作用。daou有效地讨论了使网络话语难以忍受的问题。他以主流媒体的“两面派”为目标,访问新闻,the siloed-off media world of Fox News viewers,假新闻的兴起。

在一种数字口述历史中,Daou chronicles various hot button issues and the 必威官网手机版social media movements that have accompanied them.他让我们想起了Takeaknee和Shoutyour堕胎。他很小心地注意到,帕克兰大学的学生艾玛·冈萨雷斯在推特上的关注者比全国步betway必威官网手机版枪协会的还要多。大量采购和统计,and direct quotes from Twitter accounts both massive and obscure,道乌创造了一种Twitter口述历史,讲述了抵抗运动中的重大时刻,从罗伯特·米勒的调查到夏洛茨维尔。

The irony of Daou's work,然而,他陷入了和他在网上批评的相同的陷阱。He repeatedly scolds conservatives,尤其是麦加生态系统的数据,在网上发表尖酸刻薄的言论,搅乱言论,毒害国家政治。虽然很明显,道乌的意图是好的,his assessment of the political landscape is just as limited as his opponents'.他讨厌巨魔,但就像他们一样,他通过言辞胜利衡量政治成功,不是物质变化。

在他的结论中,he argues,“这些激烈的社会媒体冲突现在必威官网手机版是一场全面的数字内战,a relentless barrage of personal attacks,threats,harassment,还有仇恨,where rational discourse and reasoned debate are the first casualties."


But how do we make things better?Daou believes it is rational discourse aimed at "finding common-sense solutions." For Daou,政治就是话语,赢得这场演讲将解决政治问题。

It doesn't take a Marxist scholar to point out that Daou's reduction of our political realities to 必威官网手机版social media infighting minimizes the material conditions that actually comprise politics.他将共和党视为一个虚伪的受害群体,rather than people with legitimate concerns.

道如写道,“……没有比这更普遍的文化神话了,no dogma more entrenched,比小镇上的白人男性更是典型的或“真正的”美国人,他的斗争是唯一有意义的。“虽然这可能是真的,it doesn't mean that voters on the other side don't have meaningful material concerns.阿片类药物危机依然存在,manufacturing is leaving America,希拉里·克林顿没有在威斯康星州竞选。And all of that happened off of Twitter.

对于道乌来说,material conditions are relevant to politics,但它们是仅次于信息传递的。The very first line of the book reads,"Politics is the competing stories we tell our country,our history,our government,我们的社区,以及我们自己,“作为左翼批评家,我认为政治就是力量,谁能掌握它。稻谷说的是旋转。

网上发生的事情会影响人们的物质条件,but no matter how many followers Emma Gonzalez has on Twitter,her classmates are still dead.

Like his opponents on the right,Daou and his comrades in digital arms have divorced their discourse from reality.Daou写关于twitter的文章,好像它们是对特朗普的真正打击,关于“杰出的抵抗分子”,好像他们是有效的活动家。

道乌提到了一个流氓的抵抗自由主义者画廊数字内战,几乎完全依靠他们对事件的看法来判断我们的政治时刻。他引用的推特个性包括但不限于艾米·西斯金德,“丙烷简,”埃里克·博赫勒特,伊玛尼·甘迪,奥利弗·威利斯,安迪·里克特,吉尔·菲利波维奇,Sarah Kendzior,Leah McElrath,Malcolm Nance,约翰·富格桑,杰西卡·瓦伦蒂,查尔斯P.皮尔斯,菲利普·雷恩斯,贝丝·卡布,马库斯·约翰逊,Symone Sanders,马修·查普曼,艾德·基尔戈,Melissa McEwan,and Joy Reid.


记录这种狭隘的网络言论的影响,ideologically similar group is that an outsized emphasis is placed on the issues they champion.如果你只听这些专家的推特信息,you would believe the American political problem is one of civility,端庄得体,还有爱国主义。You would also believe that America's political problems can be solved by getting rid of Trump and besting his supporters online.你也会相信,俄罗斯单枪匹马地左右了总统选举,希拉里·克林顿的竞选活动不应为她的失败负责。

数字内战makes reference to other viewpoints from time to time but it is incidental in the all-consuming battle,err,战争,在抵抗和玛加之间。

If you had the Twitter experience that Daou has had on a daily basis for the last four years,你也会相信数字内战。The last line of your book on politics might be the same as Daou's.你也可以写,“对于二十一世纪的美国黑人和意识形态范围内的有原则的政党来说,数字内战是为了防止他们在为时已晚之前,通过在Twitter上面对极右势力的威胁而陷入暴政。”

这种狭隘的美国政治观最终削弱了美国的政治地位,这可能是道乌的一个很好的媒体批评。When he breathlessly writes lines like "Lt.Gen.马克·赫特林和信息战专家莫莉·麦凯将俄罗斯的选举入侵比作珍珠港事件和9/11恐怖袭击事件,“令人痛心的是,Twitter的抵制与物质政治有多大的区别。

It may be an obvious point,but it is worth repeating: no one has actually died in this Digital Civil War.

Too often,道乌把空虚的修辞姿势误认为是有意义的动作。例如,他在去年的一段视频中称赞了贝托·洛克对科林·卡佩尼克的辩护。他没有提到欧洛克投票赞成蓝色的生命物质”法案并且在比赛中有着最好的混合记录。

关于堕胎和枪支的章节可能是最有效的数字内战因为Daou能够将修辞数字行动主义(或“hashtag activism”)与现实世界行动主义联系起来。Daou argues that pro-choice commentators pushing back against pro-life hardliners when it comes to issues of female bodily autonomy is useful.Similarly,他认为,围绕枪支和第二修正案的讨论对于一个更安全的社会来说是很重要的。Daou rightly points out,"The massacre at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School in Parkland,佛罗里达州,被视为枪支改革的转折点。公园地带的幸存者利用社会媒体进行动员,必威官网手机版organize,and inspire people across the country."

但有时推特不起作用,道武不愿承认这一点。在第5章中,"Battle for Faith: Un-Christian Values," Daou argues that Trump is not worthy of the adoration and respect of the Christian right.然后,他概述了一些最好的社交媒体拥有的各种各样的人已经向特朗普游说达必威官网手机版到这种效果。尽管他们努力,福音派仍然压倒性地支持特朗普。任何一个不受好莱坞影片影响的人不太可能会被梅丽莎·麦克尤恩(Melissa McEwan)称麦克·彭斯为“蛇”所左右。

Beneath the self-righteousness and myopia Daou sometimes indulges in,数字内战提供一些有趣的想法。如果他在过去几年的网络战争中把这本书作为死后研究写的话,offering the same number of Twitter sources and back-and-forth analysis of various hashtag wars and trending topics,Daou might have ended up with a useful document of a peculiar political moment.

这是本书的行动号召,这个想法,视为理所当然并接受面值,在线抗战和玛加之战是一场有意义的民族灵魂之战,道乌哪里出问题了。数字内战提出合理的论点,在某些方面,Twitter is real life.Misinformation and fake news have real world consequences.标签,informational threads,而tweet-blast-calls-to-action可以成为有效的组织工具。




布伦登加拉赫是一名政治记者和文化评论员。His work has been published by Motherboard,复杂,and VH1.他是啤酒钱电影的联合创始人,独立制作公司。总部设在洛杉矶,he works in television drama as a writers assistant.